Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Bridal Attire

Earlier this week I shared some Wedding dresses from the 19th Century on Heroes, Heroines & History. There's a link at the bottom of this post. However, I have a couple other Wedding Attire Tidbits to share with all of you.


1860 Hair Style For Bride

1866 Bridal Head Dress



Bridal Veils & Bodices

Bride & Bridesmaids Toilets

1871 Bridal Veils

1876 Bridal Head Dress

The post I mentioned about was simply wedding gowns. Here's a link Tidbits of 19th Century Wedding Gowns Get them out, if you haven't already.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Peanut Butter

I apologize for this late post. I had an early morning appointment.

Below you'll find some basic information on Peanuts and Peanut Butter. It appears to me that peanut butter was not common place until the last decade of the 19th Century.

Of the 4,000,000 bushels of peanuts raised annually in this country i.000,000 bushels are used roasted. The remainder of the crop and he peanuts of an inferior grade go to the confectioner and appear in peanut candy and other confections. Therefore at present the peanut, is used among us, is hardly to be considered a food, but, as already -aid, only as a food accessory or luxury. It is quite possible, how?ver, that this highly nutritious and cheap product of our Southern fields may come to be used in more ways than it is at present, and [■specially in combination with other food materials.
Peanut butter.—The roasted peanut ground into an oily meal has somewhat the consistency of butter and is now marketed under the name of peanut butter. Salt is perhaps quite generally added during the process of manufacture. Water is also sometimes added—usually before serving. Peanut butter is used like other butter to spread on bread, for the making of sandwiches, and in the preparation of a number of made dishes. Many persons like its flavor when it is fresh and of good quality, and it seems fair to say that the use of this and other sorts of nut butter is growing. As regards composition, peanut butter, which is essentially the ground roasted peanut, contains more protein and less fat than ordinary butter. Little is known regarding the digestibility of peanut butter, but the fine grinding would naturally seem to be of an advantage. Judged by Jaffa's experiments with a ration containing peanuts, it would be well digested.
Source: The Farmer's Bulletin ©1894

THE production of nut butter is a very simple process. The peanut and almond are the nuts that are chiefly used for this purpose; but the Brazil-nuts make a very fine butter. All of the nuts can be ground, but as they can not be blanched, they do not make a nice looking butter. The Spanish peanut has proved the most satisfactory for butter making, although some people prefer the Virginia variety. The first essential thing is to have a nut-grinding mill.
The first step is to roast the peanuts to a nice brown, being careful not to over-brown or scorch them, as too much cooking spoils the flavor. They can be roasted in an ordinary oven, but can be better done in a peanut roaster made especially for this purpose. As soon as they are roasted and cool, the skins or bran should be removed by rubbing them in the hands, or what is better, a coarse bag; or take a square piece of cloth and fold the edges together, forming a bag of it. The chaff can then be removed by the use of an ordinary fan, or by pouring from one dish to another where the wind is blowing. The process of removing the skins is called blanching. Next look them over carefully, remove all defective nuts and foreign substances, and they are ready for grinding. If a fine, oily butter is desired, adjust the mill quite closely, and place in the oven to warm. Feed the mill slowly, turn rapidly, and always use freshly roasted nuts; after they have stood a day or two they will not grind well nor make oily butter. If the butter is kept in a cool place in a covered dish, and no moisture allowed to come in contact with it, it will keep several weeks; and if put in sealed jars or cans, will keep indefinitely.
Heat the peanuts just sufficiently to remove the skins, but do not allow them to get brown; prepare them as described in a former recipe, and grind in a nut mill. Although the raw peanut butter is not as palatable as the roasted butter, it is considered more healthful and easier of digestion. It is also preferable to use in making soups and puddings, in cooking grains, and in seasoning vegetables. Food seasoned with this butter does not have that objectionable taste that the roasted peanut butter imparts; and if it is properly used, the peanut taste is almost entirely eliminated.
Almond butter is more difficult to make than peanut butter because the skins can not be so easily removed. Roasting does not loosen the skins of the almond as it does of the peanut. They have to be soaked in boiling water from two to five minutes; then the skins become loose and can be pinched off by pressing on the nut with the thumb and finger; the skin will crack and the kernel pop out. But by this process the nuts have soaked up some water and become tough. They must then be dried in the oven until quite crisp, but the oven must not be hot, or they will brown. Then run them through a loosely adjusted mill or a sausage grinder, and place on a cloth stretched over the stove until perfectlydry; then grind them in the nut-butter mill, quite tightly adjusted. This makes excellent butter if the almonds are first-class, and sweet.
Source: Guide for Nut Cookery ©1899

Peanut Butter Cookies
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup sugar
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup lard
2 cups peanut butter Mix all ingredients adding flour last 2 eggs (well beaten) with soda and water. Drop on cookie
2 teaspoons baking soda sheet with teaspoon, press with fork. dissolved in Bake in 375° oven.
4 tablespoons warm water
3 cups flour added
Miss Blanche Roe
Source: Random Recipes ©1846 (Please note that might not be the actual date of the publication. There is no date on the original source from Google Books but the organization who put out the book was organized in 1846.)

The first patent for peanut butter was issued in the 1840's in Canada. (Lynn's note.)

Peanut Butter.—A new use for peanuts is developing as the peanut butter industry becomes better understood. This product of the peanut answers in the place of ordinary butter for table use, and is said to be excellent for shortening purposes and for gravies, sauces, etc. In point of purity it is superior to the best dairy butter. It is well designed for the use of the vegetarians who strenuously object to anything animal. There is already a demand for this butter substitute and it is very probable there will be an enlarged market for the nuts. At present the product of the United States is about 500,
000 bags annually and that of the world is 600,000,000 pounds.— West Coast Trade.
Source: Journal of Hygiene and Herald of Health ©1898

Monday, September 28, 2015

1896 House, Carriage House & Floor Plans

The year is 1896 and below you'll find the front view of the house and the floor plan. What I like about these plans are the details of the kitchen and pantry.

Also I have this other building related tidbit from 1896 it's from an advertisement but has a great image of a window sash lock.

1896 Carriage House
Side View

Ground Level Floor Plans
Upper Level Floor Plans

Friday, September 25, 2015

Bartering Exchanges

In Harper's Young People magazines there was a page devoted to "Exchanges" where an individual could post an item or items for trade for another item. Bartering or exchanges was a time honored way to do business. Below are some of the "exchanges' from this 1885 publication.

V nickels without" cents," a Spanish coin of 1776, and old U. S. coppers, for other rare coins. Fnnnle A. Gris Tt old, Buttle Creek, Mich.
Five advertising cards, for every mineral or curiositv. William Brigden, Jun., 210 Raymond St., Brooklyn,?}. Y.
A Baitlmorean printing-press and equipment (including 3 fonts of type), for a pair of Peek & Snyder*s Ice skates, S!js« 9}i or 10. J. C. Letts, 89 South Portland A v., Brooklyn, N. Y.
A magic lantern in good condition, for the best offer in roller skates. William Smith, 92 South Portland A v., Brooklyn, N. V.
Minerals, fosslls, and curiosities, for the same or for coins. C H. Solomon, 3iU \V. First St., Dayton, Ohio.
Some curiosities and postmarks, a Vnlekel without" cents," 2 old coppers, a basket made of a hazelnut, and some pretty cards, for the best offer of magic-lantern slides not more than 2\' inches in Width, li. H., 206 Broadway, Norwich, Conn.
An Acme card press and a rase, for 1 font of type. Albert Zerboue, 22:1 S. Water St., New Bedford, Masr.
Pretty colored advertising picture cards, for Indian relics (1S for a trood arrow-head), minerals, or curiosities. Frank B. Veusey, 1209 Taylor St., San Franatsco, Cal.
"Wide Awake for 1884-5 and a pair of B. & B. roller skates, size for a pair of all-clamp roller skates, size 9 or 9>tf, with or without bag. £. L. O'Counell, Oneida, N. Y.
Cards, stamps, postmarks, coins, tin tags, or monograms, for stamps not in my collection (Alsace and Lorraine, Angola. Antigua, and Argentine Republic preferred). Send list. W. W. Jackson, 835 W. 18th St., New York City.
A good magic lantern and 10 slides, 50 postmarks, an Indian arrow-head, and Exchanging to Win, for a good pair of all-clamp roller skates. Nelson, care of J. H. Sharewood, Box 411, Freehold, N. J.
Elements of Chemistry, nearly new. for stamps, curiosities, or coins. S. A. Nelson, Tompklnsrille, N. Y.
Three Hong-Kong stamps, for 2 from Azores or 8 from Portugal; 8 Sandwich Island stamps, for 2 from Newfoundland. Koger B. Friend, 971 West St., Oakland, Cal.
A new pair of 10-inch roller skates, in perfect condition, and the numbers of Youth's Companion for 1883 or 1884, for a printing-press and complete outfit. The press must be in good working order and the chase at least 2>J by 4 inches. Collector, Lock Box 57, Osceola, Iowa.
Two hundred mixed foreign stamps, 10 different l'. S. stamps, 5 different revenue stamps, and 5 advertising cards, for the best offer of U. S. or foreign Stamps, all different. No German of the issue of 1878 wanted. Clyde, 747 Custead Av., Cleveland, O.
A card press, for stamping names, a full font of type, and a can of ink, for a toy theatre or for magic - lantern slides in good condition. F. Sl. Stowcll, Box 40, NewtonvIMc, Mass.
A Scott's International stamp album with 425 rare stamps, for volumes of the Wheelman and Outing and The Wheelman, or books on ornithology; books, for the same. E. B. Smith, Warren, Worcester Co., Mass.
Postmarks, for the same. Alexander Graham, Jun., Clyde, Wayne Co., N. Y.
A piece of satin-spar, copper, and iron ore. for arrow-heads. Philip Coltn, 651 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal.
One hundred foreign stamps, 5 fish fosslls from Charleston. South Carolina, a triangular Cape of Good Hope stamp, and 30 postmarks (18 of which are different), for the best offer in V nickels without the word " cents." B. Spcltmtn, 78 Clinton Av., Albany, N. Y.
A handsome scrap - book (slightly damaged), a few minerals, a specimen of cedar wood, some shells, a V nickel. 100 cards with any desired name, some scrap and advertising pictures, and a pair of nickel-plated ice skates {size 91, for the best, offer of a pair of roller skates. C. E. B., 384 Ninth Av., New York City.
A pair of roller skatest a set of boxing-gloves, and large collections of cotns, stamps, and minerals, for a prtnting-press complete Size of chase 4 by 5 inches or larger. E. F. Jordan, 4226 Walnut St., Phlladelphia, Penn.
A large Mexican sllver coin of 1834, an English coin of 1801, a French coin of 1854, and 2 old coins of 1810 and 1883, for U. S. pennies of 1836, M0. '41, '42, '45. and '50. F. T. Towne, caro of H. K. Towne, Stamford, Conn.
A V. S. stamp of 1881 and a 5-sen Japan of 187. Smith, Lock Box 18, Andover, Mass.
* Tlte publishers reserve to themselves the right of deciding whether an Exchange shall appear or not. They do not undertake any responsibitity with regard to transactions effected by means of this department of tlte paper, nor do they guarantee the responsibllity of correspondents or the accuracy of the descriptions of articles offered for exchange. To avoid any misunderstanding or disappointment, therefore, they advise Exchangers to write for particulars to the addresses given before sending the articles coiled for.
Goskell's How to Write for the Press, new and in good condition, cloth binding, for the best offer of bound books of adventure or travel. J. D. O'Neil, Box 55, West Elizabeth, Pcnn.
Ten foreign stamps, no 2 alike, for 100 well-mixed U. S. stamps. F. I. Grlswold, Battle Creek, .Midt.
Two varieties of Chinese nuts, for every perfect arrow-head - a pair of Chinese chopsticks, for every 5 arrow heads. Collector, Dayton, Ohio.
Books on anatomy, physiology, chemistry, history, phllosophy, geography, and text-books, for a pair of pet rabbits or pigeons of good breed. John Awhrey, Maple Grove, Ala.
A small stalactite from Spruce Run Cavern, Allegheny Mountains, Virginia, and barnacles and pebbles from Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, for the best offer of Indian relics. A. H. Jennings, 903 Federal St., Lynchburg, Vs.
A pair of No. 9)4 club skates, lock on toe, Union Hardware Co. make, for Pitman's short-band book in good condition. W. G. Knight, Seneca Falls, X. Y.
One hundred stamps, 50 picture advertising cards, 25 postmarks, 15 tobacco tags, petrified wood, petrified charcoal, mica, Iron pyrites, and wood from Washington Territory, for a pair of Henlv or B. & B. roller skates to fit a No. 8 boot. J.W. Sargent, Centralis, Washington Territory.
Two volumes of St. Nicholas and 8 volumes of Wide Awake: any 3, for a pair of half-clamp skates; any 4, for a pair of all-clamp ; and the 5, for a pair of patent lever, 11-inch. Box 23, Lewes, Del.
Hematite, Lake Superior. Spanish, and English iron ore, advertising cards, and U. S. cents, for minerals, curiosities, or old U. S. cents and half-cents. It. M< M. Dodgers, 70 Miller St., Pittiburgh, Penn. A printing-press, chase Z)4 by \% inches, with 12 fonts of plain and fancy type, furniture, ink, cabinet, etc., for a photographtc outfit with or without chemicals. A. K. Cressinghsm, 188 18th St., Brooklyn, >. Y.
Two Australian papers, for the best offer of tobacco tugs. A. R. Lewis, care of W. U. Lewis, Marshall, Mich.
Rare stamps on sheets, for stamps not in my collection ; a genuine periodical stamp, for any stamp of iMi'j above 10-c. Warren Koser, Wellington, Ohio.
The 10 and the 3 c. unpaid letter stamp, for the 5; a stamp of Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, and Brazll, for a triangular Cape of Good Hope. John D. Smith, Andover, Mass.
Bread-fruit, poppy pods with seed from China, and first stripping of cork-tree from Spain, for Indian relics, petrifactions, shells, minerals, woods, nuts, and bulbs. N. L. Wilson, 237 Longwood Av., Koxbury, Mass.
Foreign postal cards, uncancelled and unwritten, for postal cards uncancelled, etc., not in my collection. Thomas Whitridge, 5 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md.
Sharks' teeth, Indian pottery,petrified clams, and starfish, for crystallized and polished minerals. Indian relics, and good curiosities. Box 155, Wilmington, Del.
A printing-press (chase 3# by 4)4) and Robinson Crusoe, for a pair of Peek & Snyder's nickel-plated Ice skates, 9)4. L. Walker, 251 13th St., S. Brooklyn, N. Y.
A 25-cent note, for a star-fish or Indian pipe. Must be of good size, and perfect. W. S. Header, New Brighton, Beaver Co., Penn.
A good violin and bow, for the best offer of a stamp album (Scott's International preferred). B. Terry, 922 Putnam Av., Brooklyn, N. V.
Fifty tin tags, 50 postmarks, and an eagle cent of 1858, for Indian relics, sea-curiosities, minerals, and rare stones. Dixon Kautz, Moweaqaa, IH.
Five postmarks, for every stamp not in my collection ; stamps, for stamps. Jackson Kemper Garrett, 521 Columbia St., Burlington, lows.
Two rare Chinese coins, for the 24-c. stamp of 1870; an Italian coin of 1886 and a Swiss coin of 1K50, for the 8-centime Belgian stamp of 1809. H. B. Foster, Lock Box Z, Andover, Mass.
A piece of a pllaster (1# by 2 inches) of black walnut from the captain's cabin in the Morning Star, for minerals, Indian relics, and other curiosities suitable for cabinet. A. F. Mitchell, Box 161, St, Johusbury, Vt.
Bare stamps, advertisement cards, postmarks, and copies of Youth's Companion, for good fosslls and trllobites. Lower Sllurian especially desired. II. S. tiane, 89 N. Broadway, Yonkers, N. Y.
A bound volume of the Museum, instructions for playing the fife, a steam-engine, and a mouth harp, for a waterbury watch in good order. Robert J. Kerley, Mlllcrton, Dutrhess Co., N. Y.
A 2-cent Sandwich lsbtnd stamp, a 5-cent Newfoundland stump, and a 20-cent German stamp, for a Cape of Good Hope stamp. Hal C. Rogers. Box 327, F.scanaba, Mich.
A 14, 15, 1G puzzle, 10 revenue stamps, 25 stamps, 15 foreign stamps, curiosities, etc., for the best offer of tin tobacco tags. Accepted offer answered. Willie Borland, I tnlay City, Lnpur Co., Mich.
A Japanese napkin, for 5 pieces of sllk, satin, or velvet, 2 by 3 inches. No duplicates or solled pieces. Myra A. Doremus, 11 South Elliott Place, Brooklyn,
A hand-inking printing-press fchase 4 by 0 inches), 3 fonts of type, a rubber roller, and a pair of Sc
inch club skates, for a self-inking printing-press (chase not less than 3X by BM inches) with or without type and in good condition. George L. Mallery. Continental Hotel, cor. of 20th St. and Broadway, New York City.
Three foreign stamps, for pieces of sllk, satin, plusb.velvet. or anything suitable for a crazy-qullt. A. R. H., 2210 Locust St., Philadelphia, Penn.
One hundred and twenty postmarks, for an Indian arrow-head. John A. Thompson, Box 316, YYestvllle, Conn.
Four good postmarks, for every first-class tin tobacco tag except Climax. Chief, Old Honesty, Horseshoe, or Star. P. McF. Bealer, 201 Jackson St., Atlanta, Ga.
Three different tin tags, for every K. of L. or Brown's Mule tag sent me. YT. B. Nj mtners, 194 Houston St., Atlanta, Go.
Galena, gypsum, sandstone, peacock - coal, starfish, coral, geodes, moss-agates, hornblende, pudding-stone, coke, moonstone, arglllite agates, buhrstoue, chlorite, copper ore, hematite, ltmestone, and mica, for minerals and curiosities. Carl Gray, Box 471, St. Johusbury, Vt.
Sllver ore, jasper, chalcedony, carnellan, black sand, petrified wood, garnet, all kinds of Oregon minerals, and curiosities, for Indian relics. Gny M. Powers, Shedd, Linn Co., Oregon.
Full directions for Kensington painting, paper flowers, and some modern music, for plush and brocaded scrap-pieces. No black or old pieces wanted. 11. Brown, 00 Reynold's Arcade, Rochester, X. Y,
Twcnty foreign stamps, for 1 from Austria, Italy. Baden, Azores, Barbados, Bolivia, Hamburg, and New Brunswick. Not less than 4 taken. A.M. K.% 1010 Clinton St., Philadelphia, Penn.
Volumes IV. and V. of Golden Days, 355 foreign and 50 domestic stamps, 8 German papers, and a paper in mourning for Garfield, for a pair of allclamp roller-skates. Kaymond extension preferred. Kdward K. Black, 167 K. 60th St., New York City.
A year's subscription to an amateur paper, for 18 different Department stamps. Frank Thompson, Letter,box, Station B, Jersey City, K. J.
Cards and tin tags, for stamps and stamp papers; 2 postmarks, for every stamp; stamps, for the same. J. C. Wallace, Carlisle, Penn.
Vol. I. of Golden Argosy (7 numbers missing) and 28 numbers of Vol..II., and 500 mixed U. S. revenue stamps, for rare postage stamps or coins. Arthur C. Smith, 428 ffllfilin Av., Scran ton, Penn.
Four picture cards, for every piece of sllk, satin, velvet, or plush in Irregular shapes, but none less than S by 3 inches. No black unless brocaded or figured. Cards new and clean; no duplicates. Mabel K. Ashley, Box 24, Norwood, St. Lawrence Co..
One hundred well-assorted stamps, largest size foot-ball with key, Tom. Brown's School-Days, your name printed on 50 cards, and a gold-pointed stylographic pen, for the best offer oi long type. Alexander Gorski, care of V. A. Meyer A Co., Box 3050, New York City.
A specimen of iron ore, for 10 foreign stamps from Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Danish West Indies, Dutch Indies, Denmark, Feejee Islands, and Egypt. C. D. Mansfield, MerriU P. 0., Powell Co., Kentucky.
A good collection of 550 foreign and U. S. stamps in a Scott's International album (7th edition), for a sllver watch in good running order. E. 8. Gray, 139 Lagrange St., Toledo, Ohio.
A water-color paint box containing Winsoi A Newton's paints, books, rare stamps, and numbers of Forest and Stream, for fishing-lines, flies, spoonbaits, hooks, or tackle-book. H. W. Althouse, Pottsvllle, Box 164, Penn.
A fine new telegraph key and sounder, brass, mounted on rosewood stand, never been in use, for a pair of No. 9)4 or 10 all-clamp roller skates. Vineyard preferred. Correspondence necessary. II. Lolie Prescott, 151 Pearl St., Kast Somerrllle, Mass.
A magic lantern in good working order, for a good set of chessmen wtthout board; 150 all-different postmarks, for the best offer of foreign stamps. Stephen T. Dalryntple, Menomonec, Dunn. Co., Wis.
Sixty papers (including Durblu's last stamp catalogue), phllatelic papers, dealers' price lists of coins and stamps, minerals, etc., for 20 perfect arrowheads and a perfect axe. P. F. Shields, Nashville, Tenn.
A pair of Acme nickel-plated all-clamp ice skates (size 9) and a pair of Plympton roller skates (slzet 6). for a pair of 8 or 8)4 nickel-plated all-clamp roller skates. Winslow preferred. Kdwin A. Corbet, Box 292, Morrlstown, N. J.
A teacher of penmanship of two years' experience in Columbus Buisness College, Columbus, Ohio, wlll send a series of 12 lessons by mall, for a pair of Fenton or Raymond club skates in good condition. H. K. Hall, Box 352, Lima, Ohio.
Ten different foreign stamps, for every stamp from Asia or Africa. J* B. Brown, Jun., 22 Frank St., Nowport, K. I.
A hand-inking printing-press complete, an electric battery, a sllver-plattng set, 5 complete stories, and other articles, for a self-inking press without type. Give size of chase and full particulars. J. Davidson, 328 K. 11th St., New York City.

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Balloon Ride Tidbit

Balloons and Flying in them have been around a lot longer than the 19th Century and I have a previous post or two on these.(I've posted links below) However, I ran across these tidbits and thought it might be something some of you might enjoy and possibly spawn some creative juices for some of you.

October 19th, 1869, he ascended from Rochester again, this time with his balloon, The Hyperion. The party consisted of seven persons. The day was very unfavorable, the wind was boisterous, threatening clouds flew across the sky, flurries of snow were frequent, and the cold was searching. The ascent was made from in front of the Court House, among high buildings, and to clear these a great ascensional power was given to the balloon. It was a delicate operation to start under the circumstances wiih such an immense aerial craft, but one bound cleared it of all obstructions. Not less than fifty thousand persons witnessed the ascens:on, in spite of the disagreeable weather. In four and a-half minu;es. although gas had been discharged from the valve, they entered a snow cloud. They traveled at the rate of about forty miles an hour; the cold was intense, night came on and they were in the midst of a driving snow storm. The weight of snow gathering on top of the balloon drove them to the grcund, and they were forced to make a landing in the squall. They struck violently in an open field, the anchor did not hold, and the balloon bounded over a piece of woods, alighting on the other side. Here the anchor held for awhile, the gas escaping from the valve at the same time. Unfortunately, in the excitement, two of the party in some way got out of the basket, and the balloon thus lightened broke loose and bounded upon a side hill and at last was driven against a tree, a huge rent being made in the machine so that the gas escaped almost instantly. They had landed in the town of Cazenovia. three miles from the village of that name. From Rochester Mr. King went to Atlanta, Ga., where he made a fine ascension.

Another Story:
After this ascension Mr. King leased the balloon to Dr. Hape, who was anxious to make an ascension alone. The time set for the ascent was New Year's Day, January I, 1870. Mr. King was present at its inflation, and superintended its management. As soon as the car had been attached to the balloon, the doctor got inside, and, before the preparations for the start were completed, suddenly gave the word to "let go." Mr. King was at the time some distance from the car getting more ballast, and was in consequence unable to prevent the premature ascent. There should have been at least two hundred and fifty pounds more of sand in the car to prevent its rising too rapidly. As it was, the balloon shot upward with such great velocity that the spectators became alarmed, and gathering around Mr. King, begged to know what would be the result. He informed them that unless the doctor should have the forethought to open the valve and allow a large quantity of gas to escape the balloon must burst from the sudden expansion of the gas; and, sure enough, when it had scarcely attained the height of one mile, it was sudderly rent from top to bottom, the gas was gone in an instant, and the balloon descended with great rapidity. The audience gazed at the sight with blanched countenances, and could not be convinced that the poor doctor would not be dashed to pieces. Yet within fifteen minutes —mounted on a policeman's horse—he was riding back through the town at full gallop. When the balloon burst it formed itself into a parachute, and thus met with a sufficient amount of resistance in falling through the air to save the voyager from any serious damage.

Below are the links from previous posts. No, I did not repeat the same information three times, however, I should have changed the titles a bit differently. Oh well. Enjoy!

Hot Air Balloons Hydrogen Filled

Hot Air Balloons

Hot Air Balloons

Hot Air Balloons

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

1867 Historical Fashions

These images come from 1867 publications.


House Dress

Walking Dress

Carriage Dress

Evening Dress



Tobacco Bag


Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Tidbits on Worsted Fabrics

Below is an excerpt from an 1898 Textile World on Worsted Fabrics and the costs for the past year. Not only is this interesting in terms of costs but is also gives you a list of the various companies that were selling fabric.

The largest quantity of goods was sold in worsted fabrics, and this will account for the large number of this class.
The general run of colors was somewhat lighter than for a few seasons past. The finest line of worsteds shown was the line made by the Hockanuni Co., one grade being $3.00 less 10 per cent., another $2.871/2 less 10 per cent., and containing some small check patterns with twist, which show the general character of patterns for medlum priced heavy weight worsteds. The same is also true of the $2.75 less 10 per cent. line. In the $2.87% grade, there was a herring-bone stripe pattern, the stripe of different widths, which shows one of the best patterns of this character on the market, and as this is what the trade are demanding, it would be well to obtain samples of the same.
The silk mix fabric, black grounds with different colored silks, was $2.50 less 10 per cent. An unfinished worsted line, blacks $2.12%, blues $2.25. A fine serge, black $1.50, blue $1.62%, also unfinished and finished twills, at the same prices as serge line.
The \Hockanum wool goods are made with twist yarns, $150-$155, and these are the class of fabrics which will be sold during the coming heavy lea-son.
The “Yeovil” worsteds, made by Phillips, contained some very handsome. patterns both in stripes and suitings: they are a hacked fabric, and have the firmness required in a high priced !ight weight, the prices being $2.10 less 5 per cent. and $1.95 less 5 per cent.
The “Oswego” worsteds, made by Chas. Fletcher and sold by 'F. Vietor &. Achelis, through R. Bahcock’s department, were $1.75 and $1.50, both lines being through and through fabrics. This same house had a line of backed worsteds at $1.75, and a cheaper grade, a'll cotton filling, at
$1.30. The “Manchester” eassimeres also sold through them brought $1.25.
Strong, Hewat & Co. ‘had a line of wool cassimeres at $1.25. some of the sultings containing twist.
The "Globe" worsteds were $2.62%, $2.50. $2.37%, $2.25. The fine covert cloths, made by the “Broad Brook" and sold by Ogden & Brook, were $2.00 for both the whip-cord and covert weave, and also a herringbone whip
cord. The worsted lines of this same concern were $1.80 and $1.60, and,contalned some good patterns for stripes. The “Perseverance” worstcds were $1.57l,§, in a line of 'black and'wh‘ltes. The “Centrals,” made by Farwell, were $15714, for the fabric which was woven through and through, and had the suiting patterns, and $1.65 for the backed fabric having the trouserings.
The "Gloria" worsteds are all worsted through and through fabric, sold at $1.30. The patterns were principally nea't checks. The “Fultons,” a line similar to the preceding, was also $1.30, the pattern effects being larger. The “Viking” cassimeres having a Saxony finish were $1.30. Hardvt Von Bernuth & Co. got out an imitation covert at $1.00, which, for a fabric of this class, is the firmest on the market. They also had worsted lines at $2.85 less 5 per cent., $2.70 less 5 per cent., $2.10, $15215 and $1.50.
XV. E. Ti'llotson’s ' “Silver Lake" worsteds, which have the reputation of having the best line of stripes in the market, were $2.25 less 5 per cent. and $2.15 less 5 per cent. The Oregon City Manufacturing Co., which obtains the worsted end of the business from Chas. Fletcher, had lines at $1.20 and $1.671,§. The wool goods were $1.25, $1.50, $15254; and $1.75, many of the styles above $1.50 containing twist. Brigham, Laurie, Mason & Co. had worsted lines at $1.87% and $2.50. Stevens, Sanford &. Handy's worsteds were $1.20, $15715 and $1.65.
“Sawyer’s” worsteds were $1.871/fi, $2.00 and $2.25; the last named grade having some check patterns made with all twist which are very desirable patterns. Oelbermann, Dormmerich & Co. also had a line of worsteds at $1.80 less 5 per cent., some of the patterns being large plaids, but subdued in pattern on account of the combination of color used. Cooley, Turnbull & 00. had a line of worsteds, containing cotton both in warp and filling, which sold at $1.00 less 5 per cent. Dudley, Battelle & Hurd sold a sightly line of worsted stripes at $1.125é, this fabric being backed with a twist. They also had a line at 31.37%.
Converse, Stanton & Co's worstcds were $1.75 less 5 per cent, and $1.85$1.95. A line of whip-cords sold by the same flrm were $2.25 less 5 per cent.
Forstmann & Co., Emerson‘s Department, had a line of worsteds at $1.60. ‘Rockfeilow & Shephard’s worsteds were $1.30 and 8.67%, and in pattern were good copies of the Hockanum patterns of previous season. John & James Dobson had worsted lines at $162341. and silk mix worsted at $1.85, and a fine venetian at $2.00. Ouid & Rigelow had a worsted line at 81.17%. Sullivan, Vail & Co. sold wool goods at 771/5, 85 and 87% cents. and a fine twill in mills at $1.20, and cassimere line at $13715). Curtiss & “"arren, the western manufacturers, had a line of wool goods at 85 cents, W. Stursberg, Schell & Co. had a worsted line at $2.121,é less 5 per cent., and a fine worsted covert at $1.75. Henry “I '1‘. Mali & Co. had line of wool stripes at $1.25, and Duval, Cone & Glover a line of worsteds with plenty of cotton at 95 less 5 per cent. The “Langham” worsteds were $1.25. Kunhardt &. Allen had their usual line of wool goods, the prices being 81.37%. “42%, $1.50 and $152115. The line at the highest price contains some of the finest styles, both as regards pattern and color. They also had the usual knickerbocker twists at $1.00.

Monday, September 21, 2015

Good Morning

Hi all,
Paul and I have been out straight for the past week, actually Paul hasn't had a day off in 4 weeks, so I apologize for not getting a post done for today. I hope to have some posts finished for the rest of the week.
Enjoy the research for your historical novels. But more importantly enjoy writing them.
In His grip,

Friday, September 18, 2015

An Odd Fee

This little story comes from "The Funny Side of Physicians."©1880 At first when I read "slippers and boots" I thought I had run across another odd expression but I found the tidbit so enjoyable, I thought I'd add it here for your enjoyment as well.

Quite as odd a fee was that presented to a celebrated New York surgeon about the year 1845. An ecceutric old merchant, a descendant of one of the early Dutch families of Manhattan Island, was sick at his summer residence on the Hudson, where his family physician attended him. The doctor gave him no encouragement that he ever would recover. A most celebrated surgeon, since deceased, was called as counsel, who, after careful examination of the case, and considering the merchant's age, coincided with the opinion of the family physician, and so expressed himself to the SLIPPERS AND BOOTS.
"Well, if that is all the good you can do, you may return to New York," said the doomed man. But as the astonished surgeon was going out of the house, the invalid seut a servant after him, in haste, saying, —
"Here, throw this old shoe after him, telling him that I wish him better luck on the next patient;" and drawing off" his embroidered slipper, he gave it to the servant, who, well used to his master's whims, as well as confident of his generosity, ran after the doctor, flinging the shoe, and giving the message, as directed. The surgeon felt sure of his fee, well knowing the ability of the eccentric merchant; but he picked up the shoe, and placing it in his coat pocket, said to his brother physician, who accompanied him, " I'll keep it, and I may get something, to boot."
It contained, stuffed into the toe, a draft for five hundred dollars.

Thursday, September 17, 2015

Every Day Occupations

I stumbled on to this book while researching various occupations during the 19th Century. Now, this is a school book from the 19th century but I love how this simple information can give the writer of historical fiction insight into the times of the past.

So today's tidbit is short. It is a link to a book I feel you as a writer of historical fiction might also enjoy. Or if you're just curious of days past, you also might enjoy this little book. For example did you know that the queen once wore stockings made from a cobweb?

Here's the link"
Every-day Occupations ©1891

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

1898 Fashions

Today I've included the captions that went with these images from 1898. Typos and commas are the same as original source.

Evening Gown in black satin, arranged with transparent black lace splice over white silk, and trimmed with a full white net flounce patterned with black gauze ribbon. The skirt and bodice bordered with ruches of black net edged with narrow black satin ribbon. Chemisette and sleeves or transparent lace net.

Mantinee in "solar" accordion-pleated pink silk, hem-stitched.

Visiting Costume in dull olive green cloth and dark heliotrope velvet coat arranged with cream guider, a paler shade of green mirror velvet, miniature buttons, and a fine lace cravat.

Geranium cloth skating-gown, strapped with cloth, edged with chenille, and bordered with dark fur: vest and Toque of black antique satin.

Driving-wrap of sealskin and chinchilla, lined with brocade, fastened with antique turquoise clasps: Hat of white felt, bound and trimmed with black antique satin, black plumes and rosettes.

Flannel Dressing-gown with silk revers, trimmed with lace.

Evening Gown in mauve antique satin, arranged with the parent grey chenille fringe, and guider embroidered, and edged with chenille, draped with pale grey mousse, heavily encrusted with a design in steel and amethysts, with velvet shoulder straps.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Chicken Salad

I know we're past labor day and summer salads will soon be a thing of the past until next summer but it's still warm and perhaps your characters are hosting a party and its the summer.

So today we're posting a few recipes for Chicken Salad.

Chicken Salad.
(For forty guests.) Four chickens, same quantity of celery.
Twelve eggs, four tablespoons melted butter, four tablespoons oil, three tablespoons mustard, two teaspoons salt, two teacups vinegar, one pint cream. Beat yolks; add butter and oil slowly, then the mustard mixed smooth in a little hot water, then the beaten whites, then the vinegar and salt. Put on the stove in a custard kettle and cook until thick like custard. About an hour before serving mix the chicken and celery. Add cream to the dressing and pour over the chicken. Mrs. W. E. Burns.

Chicken Salad.
Shred fine two chickens and as much celery as chicken, chopped fine.
Two teaspoons mustard made in a paste with a little water, two teaspoons of sugar, one small teaspoon salt, three-fourths cup of vinegar, one-half cup of sweet cream, three eggs well beaten. Mix vinegar, sugar and salt with paste; add eggs; heat slowly with dish set in hot water and stir constantly till the thickness of cream. When done stir in a piece of butter size of an egg. Put cream in when you mix with chicken.
Mrs. H. Jay. Putman.

Chicken Salad.
Boil the fowls tender and remove all fat, gristle and skin, mince the meat in small pieces, but do not hash it. Take the same quantity of celery as chicken, cut into pieces of about one-quarter of an inch; mix thoroughly and set in a cool place. Use Eoyal Yacht Club Salad Dressing. Garnish the dish with fresh lettuce leaves, hard-boiled eggs or red beets cut in fancy shapes.
Source: Cook Book of Tried Recipes ©1897

Chicken Salad
Boil one chicken until tender, shred in fine pieces; cut white, tender stalks of celery very fine; about one cup of celery to one chicken. Mix chicken and celery together then stir well into them a mixture, in proportion of three tablespoonfuls of vinegar to one of oil,with pepper, salt, and a little mustard to taste. Put this aside for an hour or two or until just before serving, it will absorb the vinegar, etc. When about to serve mix the celery and chicken with a Mayonnaise sauce, leaving a portion of the sauce to mask the top. Reserve several fresh leaves of celery with which to garnish the dish. Stick a little bouquet of these tops into the center of the salad, then a row of them around it; sometimes slices or little cut diamonds of hard boiled eggs'are used for garnishing. Chicken salad is often made with lettuce instead of celery, the lettuce not being added until the last thing before serving. Salmon, shrimps and other salads are made in the same way, always using lettuce. Those desiring to, may add a little onion.
Source: Santa Rosa Recipes ©1891

Mrs. Henderson's Cook Book.

One chicken; white celery stalks; 3 tablespoons vinegar; I tablespoon Howland's olive oil; salt, pepper, mustard.
Boil chicken till tender, when cold, separate the meat from the bones. Cut into small bits; do not mince it. Cut some white, tender stalks of celery into three-quarters inch lengths. Mix chicken and celery together; stir into them a mixture in the proportion of three tablespoons of vinegar to one of oil; pepper, salt, mustard to taste. Set this aside for an hour or two. When ready to serve mix the chicken and celery with a mayonnaise dressing, reserving a portion of the mayonnaise to mark the top. Garnish with fresh celery leaves, stick a bunch of these in the center of the salad and from the center to each of the four sides, sprinkle rows of capers.
Chicken salad is often made of lettuce instead of celery. Marinate the chicken alone a moment before serving, add the small, tender, sweet lettuce leaves, then pour mayonnaise dressing over the top. Garnish with the center heads of lettuce, capers, cold chopped red beets, or sliced hard-boiled eggs. Sometimes little slips of anchovy are added for a garnish. When on the table it should all be mixed together.
Many may profit by this recipe for chicken salad, for it is
astonishing how few understand making so common a a dish. It is often minced and mixed with hard-boiled eggs for a dressing.

Mrs. E. A. Otis.
In mixing chicken salad allow one yolk of an egg to each chicken, and to four chickens one and a half pints of olive oil. Pick the chickens apart with fingers, removing carefully all fat and skin. Then take celery, pick likewise into small pieces and add it to the chicken until there is an equal quantity of each. If celery cannot be obtained, use lettuce prepared in the same manner.
For the dressing one level teaspoon of salt to each yolk of an egg; pepper to taste, one teaspoon of dry mustard, and juice of one lemon, more if the lemon is not very juicy. The oil should be added a few drops at a time, stirring constantly. While stirring, add an occasional drop of vinegar. To this mixture add the last thing one-half cup of rich cream, and when thoroughly mixed, pour over the salad just before it is served. The object of the lemon is to cut the oil, and make the dressing of a cream-like consistency.
Source: How We Cook in Los Angeles ©1894
(Gotta love that title for a cook book)

Monday, September 14, 2015

Hot Water & Hot Water Heating

Hot water and hot water heating were a modern convenience during the 19th Century. I was fortunate or not so fortunate to live in several houses that had forced hot water heating. Those huge cast iron radiators could burn your fingers, which meant keeping the tiny hands of the children away from them.
Below are two different excerpts regarding basic information on today's hot topic. Sorry couldn't resist.

ONE of the chief improvements in modern house arrangements is bringing a supply of hot water to every floor of the house on which it may be wanted. A boiler is fixed behind the kitchen fire, the flame passing behind it as well as in front. It is provided with a constant supply of water from the main cistern placed higher than the level to which the hot water has to rise. From the boiler a pipe is led to the top of the house, through which the water rises from becoming lighter as it gets heated, and flows back again to the boiler, with branches along its course to the various taps for baths, lavatories, and house-maids' closets. The pipe conveying the water upwards is called the flow pipe, that downward the return. At the highest part of it there is usually a closed iron cistern, strongly made, to resist the pressure of the steam should the water become too hot and boil. This is merely an expansion of the pipe, providing a greater quantity of hot water than the boiler alone would contain. Sometimes this hot water store is provided in a closed cistern or cylinder near the boiler, with a separate flow and return pipe to it, besides that carried through the house to supply the taps, which in this case has no cistern in its course. This plan has the advantage that there is an economy of heat, for a less quantity of hot water is moving a long distance through the house, motion being only another form of heat. The water ought never to be so hot as to boil, for the force of the steam shakes the pipes and loosens the joints. In case it should, escape pipes must be provided for it. To boil the water is needless waste of heat, and, where it contains lime, boiling it deposits the lime in the boiler and pipes in the form of a hard white crust. This thickens the boiler and prevents the fire acting on the water in it, and sometimes chokes the pipes, which is more serious. With limy water, therefore, a large boiler in which the water cannot readily rise to the boiling point is best; and in every case there must be provision for cleaning it. This is best done from the back, if it can be made accessible. The danger of a stoppage in the pipes is that the water in the boiler, not being able to flow, may be turned into steam and burst it. This sometimes occurs from the pipes freezing in some part of their course during the night when the kitchen fire is off. Or the supply-pipe may freeze, or from some other cause the supply may be stopped, in which case the boiler, getting empty, will become red hot; the water when it comes into it again will be turned instantly into steam, and burst it. It is absolutely necessary to protect all pipes from frost; for ice forming in them, from its expansion, bursts them, flooding the house when the thaw comes and allows the water to flow again. They are too often arranged with reckless disregard of this rule. They are placed in outside walls, and carried through attics where the temperature is often below freezing. To guard against frost, the hot and cold water pipes are sometimes placed together; but this cools the former and makes the latter tepid, and is no security, as the hot-water pipes may freeze if the kitchen fire is off. Besides being placed where they will be protected from the external atmosphere—the main supply-pipe well underground out of the reach of frost, and those in the house rather against inside than outside walls—they should be covered, wherever exposed, with soft felt, or some other non-conducting substance. This has also the advantage of keeping up the temperature of the hot-water supply. The cisterns also should be placed where they cannot freeze. It is an advantage when all the places where the water supply is brought are kept each above the other in one part of the house. Any leakage is thus confined to one part, where, not being over principal rooms, it does little harm, and the risk of stoppage in pipes and drains is less than when they are carried level along floors. In town houses with a small surface on each floor, the planning can generally, without inconvenience, be so arranged; but in country houses, which cover more ground, water is wanted at various points all over them, and it may be necessary to trust to good plumber-work to avoid this risk. But even in houses covering a large extent of ground I have sometimes found it possible to arrange the places where water is wanted in one position, each over the other, for the different floors; and where it is necessary to have water supply in several positions throughout the house, these should in each case be over one another.
Source: House Planning ©1880

FOR the present, people who build must take things as they find them, and use heating and ventilating apparatus as regularly manufactured. Experiments are uncertain. The theory of the proper heating and ventilating of a house as set forth in previous chapter is correct. The fulfilment of the ideas in dwelling-house heating remains to be practically worked out. It is not the business of the architect, or the housewife, or the owner of the house, to work out these mechanical details. It will be done in time by competent mechanical experts.
In the estimates subsequently given, the furnace is the only means considered for general heating. However, this does not indicate a prejudice in favor of that particular method. The furnace is considered and figured upon as the ordinary method of heating houses of moderate cost. It is the least expensive plant to be used for general heating. Indirect radiation from hot water or steam is to be preferred to a furnace. A combination of a hot-air furnace with hot water, or steam, is used with fair success. In this case, a hot-water coil is placed in an ordinary furnace, which connects with hot-water radiators in a conservatory or other room for the purpose of contributing a uniform degree of heat to that room. The water supply is a tank, located well above the level of the radiators, and connecting through an inlet pipe with the coil in the furnace. The proper means of supplying this tank with water is through a ball-cock or float-cock, the float of which opens the valve when the water gets low in the tank. Thus the supply is as constant as the source. A hot-water radiator of this kind may be used in connection with a device for warming dishes or keeping food warm. The heat is gentle, uniform, and constant. This is a general advantage of all hot-water heating.
Aside from the automatic arrangements for controlling the steam or water pressure in the heating apparatus, and thus measurably controlling the temperature in the building, other more positive automatic arrangements are provided which undertake to maintain any fixed temperature. These are proprietary devices, patented and advertised.
Complaints are made of the general inefficiency of everything under the sun: hence, furnaces and other heating apparatus come in for their share. An architect is sometimes asked how he would heat a certain building. He answers, " Hot water, steam, or furnace." — "Oh, I wouldn't have steam. My uncle had a steam plant in his house, and they nearly froze to death all last winter; and they burned over a ton of coal a week." The same things are said, and truly, of every kind of heating apparatus made, when we consider them in general classes. General complaints of a similar nature are made of everything. In regard to the steam plant or hot-water apparatus, or anything else of which this thing may have been said, one may first acknowledge its truthfulness, and then consider what it all means. Something is at fault. It may be that the whole design of the apparatus is faulty. The design may be right, and the construction bad. Everything else may be right, but the apparatus too small; or there may be some little defect which has to do with the placing of the apparatus in the house. Sometimes, when everything is in good form, the apparatus does not receive proper attention: hence trouble.
It may be asked how one is to get a good heating apparatus for a dwelling-house. The first thing to be determined is, the particular kind to be used: whether hot-water, steam, or hot-air furnace. There are many manufacturers of the various apparatus, who are regularly in the business. To these may be submitted plans of the building, and a request for estimates and suggestions. It is the experience of an architect that one who is putting money regularly in the manufacture or production of anything will not waste his energies for a great length of time on a bad thing, if he knows it. The evidence that an establishment has been putting up good furnaces or other heating apparatus is long-continued business success. If the owner of a house writes to an old-established, wealthy concern, and sends his plans, he is as certain to get a reliable proposition as he can be of anything. A local agent of an establishment of this kind may misrepresent, unintentionally or otherwise. The surest way is to go to headquarters. The local agent does not always know exactly what should be done. A competent architect can settle all these matters for an owner. However, if an architect says there are only one or Avo furnaces or heating apparatus which are all right, he is either ignorant or dishonest. There are many different kinds which will give fair satisfaction.
The idea in this chapter is to take things as we find them, and suggest what may be done. The theories outlined in the previous chapter may be correct, but they do not amount to anything to a man who is building to-day. The only purpose of this chapter is to suggest to those who are building that they go to a first-class house, pay a fair price, and get the best possible apparatus regularly in the market.
Source: Convenient Houses ©1889

Friday, September 11, 2015

Home Occupations

The title of this post today has a very different meaning than in the 19th century. Today we think of home businesses or the household chores that you hire someone else to do. During the 19th Century you'll find a different meaning. Here's an excerpt from a book by the same title as my post. Below it will be a list of some of these 'occupations.'

"The human mind," says Cicero, "ever longs for occupation," and no one will be disposed to question the truth of his assertion. Its practical application is familiar to us all. "Give the child something to do if you want to keep him quiet," is nurse's dictum for the management of a troublesome youngster, and every mother knows how essential it is to provide occupation for boys and girls if there is to be peace in the house. And that which is true of the younger members of the household is true of us all. Occupation of some kind is a necessity.

"The Human heart is like a mill that goeth round and round;
If it hath nothing else to grind, it must itselt be ground."

And thus it comes to pass that, apart from the active business and enjoyments of life, there is a vast field for light occupation; and, while we agree with Shakespeare that "pleasure and action make the days seem short," we recognize how many hours there are in every day which, in ordinary lives, are not spent in the active pursuit either of business or amusement, and which must be filled up in some way. Our object in this little book, therefore, is to offer practical suggestions for making that way a pleasant one; one that shall be, at the same time, more satisfactory than the mere exciting chase of amusement, and less irksome than the monotonous pursuit of compulsory employment.

Possibilities with Tissue Paper
Modeling with Wax (Flowers)
" " " (Fruits & Vegetables)
Perserving Glasses, Flowers and Sea-Weeds
Spatter Work (Sprinkling a dye or ink over an item to make a negative image on the cloth, paper or item below)
Frame Making
Making Scrap Books
Making use of Cardboard
Amateur Photography

The book concludes with this:
In the suggestions for home occupations which we have offered in this little book, we have carefully avoided all mention of those which come under the head of duty or of amusement, and also of almost all that partake of a sedentary character, as, for example, reading, sewing, or the cultivation of accomplishments. We have restricted ourselves in our mention of the art of painting to that of its application to the ornamentation of readily made articles, and our endeavor has been rather to suggest occupations out of which others might spring than to lay down any definite rules or plans for regular employment. Our field of observation has been necessarily narrowed by these limitations, but we trust that our directions for the occupations suitable for leisure hours may be found sufficiently thorough to assist those who embark upon them in carrying them out to a successful issue.

If you'd like to read further here's a link to the book. Home Occupations ©1883

Thursday, September 10, 2015

Perception an Understanding of a House wife's Work

This is a fun piece. I always enjoy reading from the 19th Century perspective.

The man who moves west to a new country cannot pay for many of the modern conveniences. The demand for them is not great. Such a man usually builds a house of two or three rooms. The family cook and eat in the kitchen; they sit there between meals. The other rooms are for beds. There is not a great deal of house-work to be done in a house of this kind. The trouble comes when the pioneer becomes wealthier, and builds a large house "in town " or on the farm. Possibly his wife or daughters do the work as they did in the smaller house. If not, it is done by one servant. The work in this house is a great deal harder. There is a great deal more of it than there was in the two or three room house, which was built during their earlier life. In the former house, if they had coffee, it was poured from the pot in which it was made directly into the cups which were on the table. The meat was taken from the skillet in which it was cooked and put into the plates of those who ate it. If they had pancakes, the wife would sit with her back near the stove, where she could easily reach the griddle to grease it and turn the cakes while she was eating her meal. There was no formal dessert. The pie was eaten from the same plates as the rest of the food. There were no napkins; often, no tablecloth.

It did not take long to wash the dishes after a meal of this kind — there were not many of them. In from fifteen to twentyfive minutes after the meal was over, the wife could be seen sitting by the kitchen stove, sewing or knitting. The pans and the kettles were out of the way, and the kitchen was turned into a sitting-room. If the weather was cold, the door into the bedroom was open; the whole house was warm and comfortable. Wood was plenty and cheap.

This woman's troubles began when her husband, by dint of hard work and close economy, found himself in a position to gratify his pride in his accumulated wealth by building a new house. It was a big white house with green blinds. The stories were twelve or thirteen feet high; a large hall ran through the centre; the kitchen had nothing in it but doors and windows and a stove-hole; there was no sink, no conveniences of any kind. They now had a separate dining and sitting room, and an awful parlor with brussels carpet on it, which had red and green flowers all over it. The bedrooms were upstairs. They were all large; wood-work painted white. In the winter they were cold. The old habits of economy which made this house possible had so fixed themselves upon the occupants that they would not build a fire in the bedrooms. They said that they " didn't think it healthy to sleep in a warm room."

People go to see Mrs. Green in her new house. They go through and look at it, and say, " Oh, how nice." But they find a tired woman. She doesn't sit down to sew or knit in a few minutes after the meal is over, as she used to. She is at work all the time. The children must have clothes to fit the house. There is more sweeping and dusting to do; there are more dishes to wash; there is more of everything to do. Still, she came into the new house expecting to find things different and easier than they were before.
The modern conveniences are those arrangements and appliances which make it possible for people to live comfortably in a larger house, without seriously increasing the cares which they had in a smaller one. In the old house of two or three rooms the mother would bathe the children once a week in a tub by the kitchen fire. The tub would be dragged out the door, which was not very high above the ground, and the water emptied into the yard. In the new house it is different. The water is carried from the pump in the back yard, and from the kitchen stove, upstairs into one of the rooms. Then it has to be carried down again, emptied into the alley or the yard. The living habits are all changed without the compensating conveniences which naturally belong to them. It is probable that Mrs. Green keeps a "girl," but even then she has infinitely more work to do than ever belonged to the old home. She cannot understand it. She has a new house and a girl, and yet she is always tired.

Most of the houses in the newer cities and towns are, in a measure, similar to this. Nearly every one attempts to live up to the mark set by those who have all of the appliances of modern housekeeping. Coal and water have to be carried all over the house. Slops and ashes have to be carried downstairs and out of the building.

By attracting attention to the inconveniences of housekeeping, we may see and understand the full meaning of the term "modern conveniences." There is a natural call for dish-washing arrangements to take the place of the square table, with the dishpan, the tea-kettle, and the water-bucket. In its place, we have at one side of the kitchen, a sink, with cocks for hot and cold water immediately over it. The tables and drain-board are arranged to simplify the operations of dish-washing. The water, instead of being carried to the yard or alley, finds its way naturally into the drain through the sink. Modern laundry arrangements make it unnecessary to carry great tubs of water outside, or to delay wash-day on account of the weather, or to bring in the frozen clothes during the cold winter days. The bath-room, with the tub, the water-closet, and the wash-stand, is on the second floor. This saves a great deal of work. The water does not have to be carried upstairs nor the slops down. There is hot and cold water within easy reach of all the rooms. Often it happens that there are stationary wash-stands in the various bedrooms, though this is only usual in the most expensive houses.

The amount of work which a furnace saves is not readily estimated. It also saves money. Others of the modern conveniences are " places to put things ;" large closets in the bedrooms, well supplied with drawers, shelves, and hooks; a general closet on the upper floor, which is accessible from all of the rooms, for bedding and other articles of common use; a ventilated closet in the bath-room, in whieh soiled linen may be put without contaminating the atmosphere. There should be a closet or place on the second floor for brooms, dust-pans, and dusters. Where there is no particular place for these articles, the housekeeper or the servant has to use time in searching, or in going up and down stairs. Anything which saves labor may be regarded as a modern convenience.

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

1880 Fashions

Today I'm starting with some images of Bonnets and Hair styles. Below that you'll find various ladies dresses for different functions.


Hair Styles

Walking Dresses

Visiting Dress

Mourning Dress

Ladies Dresses

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

Eat Your Veggies

Believe it or not vegetables and their importance in our diet has been something debated for many years. Below I'm taking excerpts from Letters to a Young Housekeeper about various vegetables.

Green peas need no accessories of parsley or mint, as French and German cookery prescribe. They are of such fine and delicate flavor that any kind of spice, be it exotic or herby, would merely deteriorate them.

Take a round platter, place in the middle of it a fine head of cauliflower boiled in salted water with the addition of a piece of butter the size of half an egg. Encircle it with composed a wreath of green peas, which in turn you sur0f vegetables round by a rim of boiled rice. Put outside of it
and meat. A circle of boiled carrots cut into wheels, and surround the whole either with lamb chops, or stewed sweetbreads.

Next to green peas come string beans when quite young, which, however, if maturer, are surpassed in their nutritive qualities by kohlrabi, — a vegetable introduced from Germany. Cook string beans thus: String them and how to cook them.

For nothing is more disagreeable than to eat beans not entirely freed of their strings. Wash them very well through several waters, rubbing them through your hands to get rid of parasites which are apt to cling to them, and are invisible to the naked eye. This done, you cut them slantwise into pieces an inch wide, and parboil them as stated before; then drain and put them into boiling mutton or beef broth enough to cover them. They need more or less boiling according to their kind or age; not less than one hour. Some need two hours, some even more; but I would say the latter are not fit to eat because too hard to digest. By slow boiling and evaporation the most of the liquid ought to disappear; the rest must be served with the beans. They need more fat than peas, not having any themselves. Serve them with beef, mutton, or pork.

Lima bean that it must have a large percentage of carbohydrates. Cook them in boiling water, slightly salted. Do not take any more water than will cook them, How to cook and when tender add a little hot milk, in which a Lima beans good-sized piece of butter has been melted. Add some salt. Leave them standing in a hot place for a short while to get saturated with the milk.

Spinach is a highly valuable vegetable because of its mineral matters, especially iron and lime. Therefore, you must be most careful not to waste its precious juices by throwing away the water it is cooked in, or pressing its leaves before chopping it fine. Some, indeed, prefer not to chop it at all, and they are no doubt right; but table fashion will have it chopped.
For a puree of spinach, pick the leaves over carefully, omitting the coarse and thick-ribbed ones; wash them several times, A puns throw them in plenty of boiling water, well salted;
of spinach. leave them in a few moments, then drain, and cool them off in cold water, from which drain them again. Now chop them very fine in a wooden bowl. Take a saucepan, put in a piece of butter, and when hot add to it your spinach. Stew very gently in its own juice, merely adding a little boiling water, if necessary, to prevent scorching. When done, which will be in about one-half hour, the spinach ought to have sufficient consistency to serve it heaped up in a dish, or to use it as a garnish around any kind of meat.
If spinach is served as a course by itself, a garnish of croutons, or quarters of hard boiled eggs, or both is in place. A puree Spinach as an of spinach is suitable for an entremets—a course entremets. between the roast and dessert—and as such is nice accompanied by either poached eggs, or pancakes1 rolled up.
A cupful of spinach puree left over will furnish you with material for a spinach pudding on the following day.

To boil cauliflower, put it upside down into cold water strongly salted; this destroys the insects apt to vegetate between the roses or flowerets. Leave the head in but a short time, then rinse it off, and put it into boiling water slightly salted, top r downward. See that it is fully covered with water, and boiling continuously. It will be done in twenty to thirty minutes. It gets tasteless if you cook it after it is tender, which you can test with a larding-needle thrust through the middle. Lift it out carefully, and place it on a platter, then pour over it a bechamel sauce for which you use some of the water it was boiled in. Or you may use the folA sauce for lowing sauce: For a small head of cauliflower cauliflower. \2k& half a pint of the water in which it was boiled (or the same amount of veal broth) ; add to it two ounces of butter, a teaspoonful of flour, a taste of nutmeg, and the yokes of two eggs beaten beforehand. Stir the whole over the fire until it just comes to a boil, and no longer. Continue to stir for several minutes after you have taken it off the fire, to avert all danger of curdling.
To cook cauliflower with cheese, take a dish and moisten it with a thick bechamel sauce; dust over it some grated Parmesan cheese; then arrange on it a layer of Cauliflower.
Cauliflower served with either pigeons, chickens, veal cutlets, or roast beef, is a good combination.

To prepare asparagus for boiling, shave off with a sharp knife the fine outside fibres, beginning below the sparagus. nead downward, and cut away the woody end below. Do it just before needed. Rinse in cold water, then tie the stalks together by the dozen, and put them in plenty of boiling water slightly salted. They ought to be done in twenty minutes. If left boiling too long, they will harden, and, moreover, lose their flavor together with their delicate mineral matters, which render asparagus so valuable. Remove the strings after they are placed on the dish they are to be served in. Have with them some melted butter, or a bechamel sauce made slightly acid, and thickened with the yoke of one or more eggs. A sauce Hollandaise1 agrees well with them. But whatever sauce you make, always use for it some of the water in which the asparagus was boiled, because it absorbs part of its flavor and wholesome properties.

To boil cabbage, cut the heads into quarters, taking out the stalks inside. Treat it like cauliflower in cleansing it.

Red cabbage is finer and more delicate than the white kind. In Germany it is cooked in the way which follows, when it is served with partridges in their proper season. It
Red cabbage is very good, also, with roasted pork, or boiled ham. Cut a large head, or two small ones, into quarters, and after removing the hard parts, shred fine with a sharp knife. Put it in a stew-pan, in which a tablespoonful of lard, or the same amount of pork-drippings, has been heated. Cover it up, and let it stew over a moderate fire, shaking it and tossing it from time to time, for half an hour. Then add half a cupful of beef broth, and an hour later a wineglassful of cidervinegar and twice as much claret. Add also a teaspoonful of salt and the same amount of granulated sugar, and continue stewing until quite tender. The longer you boil this dish of cabbage, the better it will be; only be sure and do not add the vinegar and wine too long before serving, since they lose by cooking. If you prefer not to use wine, you will have to double the quantity of vinegar, and increase that of sugar also.

Monday, September 7, 2015

1893 Large Barn Plans

As the 19th Century progressed larger farms were being built. Below is an example of one such farm. David Lyman lived in Conn. and had this barn built. I've included what the author of the Barn Plans and Outbuildings author wrote.

Among the many large and expensive barns now scattered through the country, there are few more thoroughly satisfactory to old school farmers with broad ideas, than one built by the late Mr. David Lyman, of Middlefleld, Connecticut. Mr. Lyman required a very large barn for his farm purposes simply, and built one, a front view and interior plans of which are here given. The elevation of the building, figure 1, shows entrances to its two main floors; there is a basement below.
The Upper, Or Hay Floor.—This floor is shown in figure 2 ; all the hay, grain, and straw are stored here. It maintains the same level throughout. Two thrashing floors cross the building, and are entered from the high ground on the west by a very easy ascent. The main entrance crosses over an engine room, seen in figures 1 and this room is built of stone, arched above, and is roomy as well as secure.
By means of a hay fork and a number of travellers, the hay is taken from the loads and dropped in any part of the immense bays. The forks are worked by one horse, attached to a hoisting machine, of which there are two, placed near the great doors during the haying season, as indicated by the letters marked H, P, in the plan, figure 2.
On the main floor are bins for grain and ground feed, provided with shutes connecting them with the feeding floor. There are hay scales, also—a fixture in one of the floors—which afford the means of being very accurate in many things, in regard to which guess work is ordinarily the rule. The great ventilators, so conspicuous in figure 1, pass from the feeding floor to the roof, and are furnished with doors at different elevations, quite to the top of the mow, thus forming convenient shutes to throw down hay or straw. A long flight of stairs passes from the principal barn floor to the cupola, from wl.ich a magnificent view is obtained of the whole farir. and surrounding country.
The Feeding Floor is entered by several doors. Two double doors open upon a spacious floor in the rear of the horse stalls, which extends through the middle of the main barn. The northwest corner, figure 3, is occupied by a large harness and tool room, with a chimney and a stove. On the right of the front entrance is the carriage room, which is closed by a sliding door, or partition. There is room on the open part of this floor, behind the horse stalls, and adjacent, to drive in three wagons at a time, and let the horses stand hitched. Between the ox stalls in the south wing, is a ten-foot passage way through which carts with roots or green feed may be driven, the stairs in the middle being hinged at the ceiling and fastened up. The stalls are seven feet wide, and arranged to tie up two cattle in each. A gutter to conduct off the urine runs along behind each range of stalls, and there are well secured traps, one in about every fifteen feet, through which the manure is dropped to the cellar. The letter C, wherever it occurs in figure 3, indicates a trap door of a- manure drop. The letter D is placed wherever there are doors which, in the engraving, might be taken for windows.
The cattle pass to the yards through doors in the ends of the wings. The south yard is nearly upon a level with the floor, sloping gradually away toward the south and east; but the large barn yard is on the level of the manure cellar, and an inclined way gives access to the yard on the east side, from the cow stalls. Three roomy, loose boxes are provided, one for horses, and two as lying-in stables for cows. Near the points marked W, and F, stands the hydrant for flowing water, and the trough for mixing feed, and here, too, the shutes for grain and cut feed discharge from the floor above.
Ventilation And Light.—Four immense ventilating trunks, four feet square, rise from the feeding floor straight to the roof. These are capped by good ventilators of the largest size, and cause a constant change of air in the stables, the draft being ordinarily sufficient to be felt like a fresh breeze, by holding the hand anywhere within a few feet of the openings. This keeps the air in the whole establishment sweeter and purer than in most dwellings. The windows on all sides of this floor are of large size, with double sashes, hung with weights.
The Barn Cellar.—This is arranged for hogs, roots, and manure. The fixed partitions in the cellar are only two, one enclosing the root cellar, and the other, outside of that, shutting off a wide, cemented passage way, extending from the door at the northeast corner, around two sides of the root cellar, as shown in figure 4. The rest of the cellar is occupied by the manure, and hogs are enclosed in different parts of the cellar, according to convenience.
Size Of Bars'.—The building covers more than onefifth of an acre of land, and thus there is over three-fifths of an acre under a roof. The main barn is fifty-five by eighty feet. The wings are each fifty-six feet long, the south one being thirty-five wide, and the east wing thirtyone and one-half feet wide. The four leading points sought for and obtained were: first, economy of room under a given roof, second, plenty of light, third, plenty of air, and ventilation which would draw off all deleterious gas as fast as generated, and fourth, convenience to save labor. Saving of manure, and many other things were of course included. The windows are all hung with pulleys, and are lowered in warm days in winter, and closed in cold days. This is important.